Navigation

Navigation aids include:

  • Inertial Navigation System
  • VHF Navigation Radio
  • Distance Measuring Equipment
  • Automatic Direction Finder
  • Radio Magnetic Indicators
  • ATC Transponder
  • INS Updating Indicators
  • Marker Beacons
  • Weather Radar
  • Instrument Switching
  • Compass Controller
  • Central Instrument Warning
  • Glide Slope Antenna
  • Litton 92 CDU



Inertial Navigation System:

LTN-72R
Declo INS




INS - Captain's & First Officer's


INS #3 - Centre Pedestal




INS - Overhead Panel




VHF Navigation Radio:



VHF Nav 1 on Captain's side of lightshield with VOR/ILS or INS selector switch for referencing HSI


VHF Nav/ILS & ADF on Centre Pedestal





Distance Measuring Equipment:



VOR/ILS Test Switch: Receivable signal is not required for testing of the VOR or ILS

Select a VOR frequency -

Set course 000
Place test switch to VOR
Check deviation bar centred with a "from" pointer
Check RMI Pointer at 180

Select a LOC frequency -

Place test switch to DN/RT
Check G/S pointer one dot down, deviation bar one dot right
Place test switch to UP/LT
Check G/S pointer one dot up and deviation bar one dot left



Automatic Direction Finder:


Displays in KHz
Freq range: 190 to 1749.5 KHz

Mode Switch:
ADF - Continuously indicates magnetic bearing to station on ADF RMI.  Simultaneously provides aural reception from station.
ANT - Receives voice and CW transmissions with automatic gain control.
TEST - Needle points to left of lubberline.


Radio Magnetic Indicators:




VOR / DME / ADF with flags




ATC Transponder:



Altitude source switch selects CADC-1 or -2 as source of altitude information.

TCAS unit with test function.

TA / RA.  With one engine inop select to TA Only.






INS Updating Indicators:

Indicates green when INS position is being updated by reference to a DME station.




Marker Beacons:

Airways, Middle & Outer







Weather Radar:





Centre Display




Instrument Switching:

Transfer switches - Old Style


Transfer switches - New Style



Compass Controller:

Pilot's overhead panel ( 2 units )
Synchronisation indicator:

When index marks are aligned as shown, indicates directional gyro function of compass system is correctly slaved to magnetic flux valve. 

Inoperative in DG mode.


DG/Slaved Switch: 
DG - Directional gyro type information (not corrected by flux valve) being furnished to magnetic compass system from INS.
SLAVED - DG type information (slaved to flux valve) being furnished to magnetic compass from INS - Used in lower latitudes.

Set Heading Control:
Holding switch left or right rotates compass card to set desired heading.




Central Instrument Warning:

Instrument Warning Light (Red):

- Flashes on both pilot's panels when ATT or HDG lights illuminate.
- Flashes on the pilot's panel that has the following flags come into view:
        GYRO (On ADI)
        GS (On HSI after Glide Slope capture)
        NAV (On HSI after Localizer capture)
        Radio Altimeter Warning (Below 1500 feet)
        Heading (On HSI, MAG or TRUE)
- Pressing each flashing WARN light extinguishes that light and resets the system.


MON - Computer Monitor Warning Light (Amber):
Illuminates when power lost to the cental instrument warning system computer. 
WARN light does not illuminate.
Pressing the MON light causes it to dim.

ATT - Attitude Comparison Warning Light (Amber):
- Both pilot's ATT lights illuminate when a difference of 4 degrees exists in pitch or roll between the two ADIs.
- Causes both instrument WARN lights to flash and a buzzer aural warning to sound.
- ATT light remains illuminated until attitude difference is eliminated.






Glide Slope Antennas:


Three glideslope antennas are utilized to provide optimum performance during intercept and capture and during glideslope tracking.



Prior to the extension of the landing gear, the upper antennas in the radome area are used for glideslope intercept and capture.



After extension of the landing gear the lower glideslope anntennas on the nose gear doors are used for tracking.



Utilizing an upper antenna, which has failed to transfer to the nose gear doors, for single autopilot or flight director glideslope tracking could reduce threshold clearance by approximately 8 feet.









Nose gear door ILS antenna:









Litton 92 CDU
:



Area navigation flight plan data

The LTN-92 system has a prestored external data base consisting of selected navaids, airports and enroute waypoints.
The bulk data is programmed to contain the particular data base coverage.

The data base contains items identified by unique, ICAO identifier codes.  Where duplicate identifier codes exist in a data base, numeric modifiers are assigned to differentiate between items (ie KW1, KW2).
Up to six alphanumeric characters can identify an item. By entering it's alphanumeric identifier, each item in a data base may be used as a waypoint.
In addition, the navaids providing co-located DME and VOR signals may be used for automatic position updating.

A flight plan containing up to 99 sequential waypoints can be established using prestored route and waypoint data in any combination.
The prestored data are called from the permanent bulk storage memory, which is retained when the system is turned off.
The coordinates of any waypoint can be defined in either of two ways: latitude and longitude entry, or by the use of a magnetic radial and distance from an established waypoint.


Further study on Navigation:-

FAA:  http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/navservices/

General Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VHF_omnidirectional_range


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